What is Automation?
The shortest answer to the question of automation is to configure the function according to the characteristics of the functions of the specified machine or systems, and then automatically apply all the operations according to their own construction without the need of any human being like employee or workers. After the construction, these applications are repeated at the end of certain operations and always create a cyclical work. All transactions that can be listed and reproducible on this page can be done automatically without any human intervention.
Automated systems can be fully human-based (fully automated) or human-dependent (semi-automated). As the automation systems become more and more independent from the people, the level of automation becomes higher and more complicated.
The automation which we are in every moment of our lives, is in almost all of the devices, equipment, machines and systems we use today. The heating and ventilation systems in shopping malls, starting from irons, washing machines, dishwashers, which are used in our houses, those are simple examples of the machines and systems that work with automation. The new models we use in the same way are examples that can be given with automation controlled systems. In the industry, production machines, packaging, palletizing, stretching, transport systems, storage and even loading systems are also confronted as automation systems.
As we have mentioned in the above that automation systems can be done with a simple thermostatic controller or with microprocessor cards or PLC programmable systems. The size of the machine or systems varies, depending on the type of commands and signals received and the automation equipment.
The automation equipments can also be in different types depending on the size of the work to be done, the received signal and the speed of transmission of signals and signals. The PLC selected for the 10 signaling machine and the PLC selected for the 1000 signaling machine are also different. In the same way, it is necessary to have different types of drivers that can only switch speeds at the same speed as a driver and can switch to different speeds.
In automation systems, the basic rule is to give commands according to the given instructions. Despite the fact that comments can be made in computer programming languages, automation programs have a lot of requirements for interpretation and these conditions have to be in order. If one of the sequential conditions does not come in place and the operations that need to be done when not in place are not specified as another sequential condition command, then the system itself is stopped. For this reason, it is very important that the data are taken correctly and that the conditions are set correctly. Otherwise, efficient system operation is not possible.
A Case Study
In automation systems, data is taken with sensors ,and sensors and time dimension is added as data according to the characteristic of work to be done. Accepted data are transferred to the makers such as the engine, the piston and the like by the systems such as valves, contactors and drivers, and therefore work to be done is done.
In the above data we can describe the different types of automation on an example as follows.
Requirement: Putting the pallets on the conveyor with the forklift and passing them to the other side through the bridge and then picking them up with the forklift
- Simple automation: Each conveyor is equipped with a sensor and sequential system.
If there is no product on the conveyor after the sensor bar on the first conveyor, the motor of the first and subsequent conveyor is operated and the system is set on the sensors that see the pallet and it stops in this order and stops when the sensor of the last conveyor sees the pallet.
- Controlled automation: Each conveyor is placed with a sensor and a time algorithm is established with the sensors and the program is written with sequential system.
If the sensor on the first conveyor detects the pallet for a certain period of time and there is no product in the conveyor after the conveyor, the motor of the first and subsequent conveyor is operated. It is calculated how long after the engine is run, and the sensor will stop when it sees the pallet, or if the sensor does not see the pallet at the end of the set time, it will be configured as an alarm. The system continues in this order and stops when the sensor of the last conveyor sees the pallet or the time passes. If the system stops due to time, it warns the operator by giving an alarm
It is possible to make these structures and constructions much more important, and here are some things to note about automation:
- Automation systems must be designed to protect mechanical systems and to make slow and soft movements from sudden and hard movements.
- The time factor, if necessary, should be designed to take into account the requirements of the command in front of or behind it, if necessary, not on a single signal from a single sensor.
- The operator should be able to display the reason for the waiting or stopping, or the steps of the work to be done on the panel, in order to provide ease of use.
- Industrial automation systems should be configured to provide operation alarms, safety alarms, warning alarms, and should be configured so that all these alarms can be recorded and analyzed.
- The automation systems will record the meters related to the finished work and will monitor the production, breakdown, maintenance, it should be structured in such a way that the data affecting productivity can be recorded in such a way that it can be analyzed.