The Variations in application and types of Palletizing machines
Palletising is carried out on pallets, stacking machines, forklifts, etc. after the manufactured products are made of wood, metal, cardboard or plastic materials and placed on the product. can be defined as the process of transporting by transportable devices.
The produced products can be palletized in the primary packaging according to their sizes or can be placed on the pallets after the secondary and tertiary packaging. Products such as oil cans, gallon scale paint packages, cement, building chemicals, fertilizer sack can be given as examples directly in primary packaging. Products such as drinking water, mineral or vegetable oil, tomato paste, detergent products, toilet paper, napkins, biscuits or chocolate bars can also be mentioned as examples of products that are put on the pallet after entering the secondary or tertiary packaging.
However, it can be diversified as pallets, plastic, tinplate, pallets made from wood, etc., which can be placed on the product, as well as materials such as plain paper made of cellulose having a high specific breaking strength in order to reduce the cost of pallets.
The pallets can be collected under the three main headings specified below and can also be customized according to the product or transportation characteristics.
- 80x120x15 cm pallets called Euro pallets
- 100x120x15 cm pallets called British pallets
- 80x60x15 cm pallets called Dusseldorf pallets
- The pallets are 110x110x15, 120x120x15, 110x120x15 cm depending on application and product.
Palletizing operations can be done in different ways according to the way palletizing is done:
- Manual palletizing
- Semi-automatic palletizing machines and systems
- Fully automatic palletizing machines and systems
- Manual palletizing system: The palletizing process is a completely human-made process. In this application, placing pallets in pallet area, putting products on a pallet, placing intermediate cardboard or non-slip nylon between pallet’s floors if necessary, and removing pallet from the area after palletizing process is finished and putting empty pallet in place are all done by human power. Despite the possibility of palletizing with human power in low-capacity productions, the human power requirement increases as the capacity increases, but after a certain production capacity, palletization with human power becomes impossible. In addition the lack of human power, pallet stability is one of the most important problems in manual palletizing. In the light arms such as chips, cakes, napkins, pallet stability is not deteriorated during alignment, and as time progresses in heavy products such as drinking water, fruit juice, oil, tins, and carboys, and operators are tired of pallets stability. As time goes by, firms are starting to use semi-automatic or fully automatic machines to ensure pallet stability.
- Semi-automatic palletising machines and systems: The processing of the palletizing process, which requires frequent frequency and heavy body power, to be performed by the machine, and the sparse frequency and light body power is required to be done by human power. In this application, placing pallet in pallet area, interposing carton or non-slip nylon between pallet floors if necessary and removing empty pallet from pallet after finishing pallet process and putting empty pallet in place is done by human power. However, according to the preference of the firm and the characteristics of the machine, it is possible that the processes performed by the machine can be done by the machine. As the human power decreases in the palletizing process, the automation level of the machine increases and thus the degree of increase from the semi-automatic system to the fully automatic system increases. These systems are preferred because they are low-cost systems. Since these machines, which are capable of palletizing up to a certain capacity, are inadequate on certain capacities, it is necessary to switch to fully automatic machines. In this system, the problem of stability of the pallet is not encountered at a serious level and the “work safety risk” is the biggest problem that can arise. In this system, some operations are done by people with continuous and automatic stepping machine and this causes the risk. On the one side there are sensors and machines that move with automation programs, on the other side there are those who have to work synchronously with that machine but the feelings and impulses,Work accidents can arise when people make possible movements that they should not do because of their impulsiveness, reflex interactions with the problems they see
- Fully automatic palletizing machines and systems: It is the process of making all the palletizing operations by machine without human power. In this application, placing pallet in pallet area, putting products on pallet, placing intermediate cardboard or non-slip nylon between pallet floors if necessary, and removing pallet from the area after palletizing process is finished and putting empty pallet in place are all done by human power. In this system, the problem of pallet stability is not experienced at a considerable level, and there is no “job security risk” if the machinery manufacturer takes the necessary precautions in accordance with the regulations. The most important consideration in these machines, which can be used on high, medium or low capacity lines, is the use of pallets, intermediate cartons, etc. palletizing materials must be of a certain quality and standard.
Palletizing can be done in different ways according to the machine types of palletizing:
- Cartesian palletizing systems
- Radial palletizing systems
- Conventional, elevated palletizing systems
- Conventional columned palletizing systems
- Robotic palette systems
- Combined palletizing systems